October 1993 | NTIA Technical Memo TM-93-159

Implementation Guide for Federal Standard 1049 Section 1, Linking Protection

Eric E. Johnson; Christopher Redding; David F. Peach; Robert T. Adair


Automatic Link Establishment (ALE) technology automates the selection of channels and establishment of links among high-frequencyradios, but creates a vulnerability in such automated networks to hostile manipulation of network operations. The Linking Protection (LP) technique described in this report was developed to protect against such manipulation, while causing minimal degradation to network performance.This report provides a summary of ALE operation, followed by adiscussion of the LP technique and suggestions for producing high-performance implementations of LP, based upon simulation studies of protected-mode performance.

Superseded by TM-95-166 of the same title.

Keywords: simulation; HF; authentication; ALE; high-frequency radio; performance analysis; radio networks; automatic link establishment (ALE)

To request a reprint of this report, contact:

Lilli Segre, Publications Officer
Institute for Telecommunication Sciences
(303) 497-3572

Disclaimer: Certain commercial equipment, components, and software may be identified in this report to specify adequately the technical aspects of the reported results. In no case does such identification imply recommendation or endorsement by the National Telecommunications and Information Administration, nor does it imply that the equipment or software identified is necessarily the best available for the particular application or uses.

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