The Institute's technical activities are organized into four divisions, which characterize ITS's centers of excellence:
- Spectrum and Propagation Measurements (ITS.M): designs, develops and operates state-of-the-art spectrum measurement systems; measures spectrum occupancy trends and emission characteristics of Federal transmitter systems; identifies and resolves radio frequency interference involving Federal systems.
- Telecommunications and Information Technology Planning (ITS.P): plans and analyzes telecommunications and information technology systems and services, improving their efficiency and enhancing their performance and reliability; develops qualitative and quantitative public safety communication, information-sharing, and interface standards; researches, develops, tests, and evaluates concepts, products, and services for long-term public safety communications interoperability solutions.
- Telecommunications Engineering, Analysis and Modeling (ITS.E): performs technical assessments of existing, new, and proposed individual telecommunication systems; analyzes ways to improve the efficiency and enhance the technical performance of telecommunications systems; and develops propagation prediction models for use in multiple applications.
- Telecommunications Theory (ITS.T): develops innovative telecommunication technologies and engineering tools through the application of electromagnetic theory, digital signal processing, broadband wireless systems performance, audio and video quality assessment, spectrum sharing concepts, and noise analysis.
- The Director's Office supports these areas in budget and administrative functions. The Director's Office promotes the Laboratory's mission nationally and internationally, through regular and substantive contact with the rest of NTIA, Congress, other federal agencies, and the private sector. The Director identifies and pursues program development opportunities, and supervises the leaders of the four technical groups and the administrative group.