April 2011 | NTIA Technical Memo TM-11-475
Abstract: Digital video transmission systems consisting of a video encoder, a digital transmission method (e.g., Internet Protocol—IP), and a video decoder can produce pauses in the video presentation, after which the video may continue with or without skipping video frames. Sometimes sections of the original video stream may be missing entirely (skipping without pausing). Time varying delays of the output (or processed) video frames with respect to the input (i.e., the original or reference) video frames present significant challenges for Full Reference (FR) video quality measurement systems. Time alignment errors between the output video sequence and the input video sequence can produce measurement errors that greatly exceed the perceptual impact of these time varying video delays. This document proposes several objective video quality parameters that can be extracted from variable frame delay (VFD) information, demonstrates their correlation to subjective video quality, and shows how they can be utilized in an FR video quality measurement (VQM) system.
Keywords: measurement; video; quality; parameters; objective; subjective; correlation; calibration; dropped; frames; full reference (FR); pausing; skipping; alignment; time; variable delay
To request a reprint of this report, contact:
For technical information concerning this report, contact:
Margaret H. Pinson
Institute for Telecommunication Sciences
Disclaimer: Certain commercial equipment, components, and software may be identified in this report to specify adequately the technical aspects of the reported results. In no case does such identification imply recommendation or endorsement by the National Telecommunications and Information Administration, nor does it imply that the equipment or software identified is necessarily the best available for the particular application or uses.